How did Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) address capacity building?: implications for future communication by parties on capacity building under the Paris Agreement

This paper surveys a sample of INDCs and assesses how capacity building is identified and mentioned in the context of their pledges towards the Paris Agreement. The paper suggests that it is necessary to improve prior information on capacity building gaps and needs to enhance clarity, transparency and understanding, and to ensure that Parties identify those gaps and needs so that international support can be delivered effectively through the Paris Committee on Capacity-building (PCCB).