Evaluation of emission-control scenarios for agricultural tractors and construction equipment in India

The market for agricultural tractors and construction equipment in India is growing rapidly. Without further regulatory action to control emissions from these sources, they are expected to surpass on-road vehicles as the predominant transportation-related source of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the next 10-15 years. This study used an emission inventory model to evaluate alternative regulatory control scenarios for non-road equipment in India on the basis of air pollutant emissions. Regulatory pathways are based on similar programs implemented in the United States (U.S.) and European Union (EU), as well as forward looking improvements to these programs.