Dynamics and quantification of dissolved heavy metals in the Mahanadi river estuarine system, India
Dynamics of heavy metals such as Fe, Mn, Zn, Cr, Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, and Cd in surface water of Mahanadi River estuarine systems were studied taking 31 different stations and three different seasons. This study demonstrates that the elemental concentrations are extremely variable and most of them are higher than the World river average. Among the heavy metals, iron is present at highest concentration while cadmium is at the least. The spatial pattern of heavy metals suggests that their anthropogenic sources are possibly from two major fertilizer plants and municipal sewage from three major towns as well as agricultural runoff.