Quantifying the economic spillover effect for citywide fecal sludge management programs

Developing countries throughout Asia have made impressive gains in sanitation improvement through efforts to reduce open defecation and improve toilet coverage, and hygienic citywide fecal sludge management programs have become critical. Fecal sludge management (FSM) is implemented to transport fecal waste from residential environments, improve wastewater systems, and reduce the spread of pathogens and organic matter from human waste. The economic spillover effect describes ancillary benefits of citywide sanitation improvement programs for a community, including (i) increased property values, (ii) improved tourism and livelihood opportunities, and (iii) improved health and productivity.