A Sustainable Ocean Economy for 2050: Approximating Its Benefits and Costs

The ocean and its resources provide key ecosystem services and benefits that are crucial for human well being and the prosperity of the global economy, but these services are at risk. The ocean’s wide range of ecosystem services (including food, energy, recreational/cultural services and trading/transport routes) is vital for the well-being of society. However, climate change, over fishing, pollution and a loss of biodiversity and coastal ecosystems are eroding the ability of the ocean to sustain livelihoods and prosperity.Taking action to protect these ocean-based ecosystems and ensuring the environmental sustainability of ocean-based activities will produce health, environmental and ecological, and economic and social benefits to people and the planet.