Heat and health in the WHO European Region: updated evidence for effective prevention

The WHO Regional Office for Europe published guidance on heat–health action planning in 2008, and intends to update this to include the latest evidence. An in-depth review was initiated, based on recent epidemiological and environmental research and lessons learned from implementation in practice. This publication collates and summarizes the most relevant evidence published since 2008, focusing primarily on Member States in the WHO European Region. Findings are organized around the elements the original guidance document identified as “core” to a comprehensive heat–health action plan (HHAP), and these are complemented in each chapter with the results of a WHO survey of heat–health action planning in 2019, where relevant to the topic covered.