Biodiversity and agriculture: rapid evidence review
Agriculture is the largest single source of environmental degradation, responsible for over 30% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 70% of freshwater use and 80% of land conversion: it is the single largest driver of biodiversity loss (Foley et al. 2011, 2005; IPBES 2019; Willett et al. 2019). Agriculture also underpins poor human health, contributing to 11 million premature deaths annually. While too many still struggle from acute hunger, a growing number of individuals, including in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), struggle to access healthy foods. Greater consideration for, and integration of, biodiversity in agriculture is a key solution space for improving health, eliminating hunger and achieving nature-positive development objectives. The goal of the study was to conduct a robust but rapid review of the evidence (and evidence gaps) on biodiversity (nature) positive agricultural systems and practices that are inclusive, climate smart and drive improved nutrition outcomes, making recommendations on priority research, development, investment and policy changes leading to biodiversity and livelihoods gain in low and middle-income countries (LMICs).