Country-wide Shit-Flow Diagram: Establishing National Excreta Flows in South Africa

The Statistics South Africa general household survey in 2016 noted that despite the large improvements made since 1994, many households still lack access to safe, affordable and reliable sanitation services. The establishment of sanitation infrastructure and public services that are sustainable, protect the environment and nurture human health remains a major challenge, and requires an understanding of issues across the entire sanitation service chain, including waste containment (toilets), emptying (of pits and septic tanks), transportation (to sewage or sludge treatment facilities), waste treatment, and disposal/reuse.