District-level changes in climate: historical climate and climate change projections for the northern states of India
The impacts of climate variability, climate change, and extreme events are visible globally and in India. The Global Climate Risk Index 2021 ranks India seventh, considering the extent to which India has been affected by the impacts of weather-related loss events (storms, floods, heatwaves, etc.). The index signals that repercussions of escalating climate change are exacerbating and can no longer be ignored. The Government of India and state governments are committed to reducing the vulnerability of communities and ecosystems to climate change and building resilience to climate change risks. A good understanding of historical climate trends and climate change projections at a district scale is essential in this endeavour as much of the decision-making, planning, and implementation happens at the district level. This study analyses the historical climate and projects the temperature and rainfall of the five northern states of India: Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh.