Scaling up reuse and recycling of electric vehicle batteries: assessing challenges and policy approaches

This paper summarizes how battery reuse and recycling can strengthen the environmental and social benefits of a global transition to electric vehicles. It estimates the volumes of end-of-life vehicle batteries that could be reused in second-life applications up to 2050. Similarly, it estimates the global demand of battery raw materials for electric vehicles and by how much it can be reduced by establishing an efficient recycling environment. The paper also describes the techno-economic opportunities and challenges faced and discusses the policy framework needed to scale up battery reuse and recycling practices.