The impact of policies to control motor vehicle emissions in Mumbai, India
This paper examines the impacts of measures to reduce emissions from passenger transport; specifically, buses, cars and two-wheelers. These include the possibility of converting diesel buses to compressed natural gas (CNG), as the Indian Supreme Court required in Delhi, which would necessitate an increase in bus fares to cover the cost of pollution controls. It also considers raising the price of gasoline, which should affect the ownership and usage of cars and two-wheelers, as well as imposing a license fee on cars, to retard growth in car ownership. The impact of each policy on emissions depends not only on how the policy affects the mode that is regulated, but on shifts to other modes.