Arctic black carbon from shipping: a club approach to climate-and-trade governance
This paper addresses questions about how the problems related to black-carbon are being addressed or could be addressed within shipping sector. It examines available technologies and ongoing regulatory efforts, as well as regulatory gaps. Following this, it proposes an Agreement on Black Carbon (ABC) as a viable means for bridging such gaps. Such an agreement could be a club-like partnership, including both state- and non-state actors, with incentives and penalties for members, thereby ensuring that the problem caused by maritime shipping is effectively addressed. The paper also highlights the need to further ensure a coherent relationship of ABC with existing governance and institutional arrangements, including not only those governing climate change and shipping but also the trade regime-embodied in WTO rules and agreements.