Neuropathogenesis by Chandipura virus: An acute encephalitis syndrome in India

Chandipura virus (CHPV) has been contributing to the rising number of premature deaths due to acute encephalitis syndrome for over a decade in India. CHPV belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae. Neuropathogenesis of CHPV has been well established but the exact route of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) and the triggering factor for neuronal death are still unknown. Rabies virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, which are related closely to CHPV, enter the CNS retrogradely from peripheral or olfactory neurons. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier has also been connoted in the entry of CHPV into the CNS. CHPV upon entering the neurons triggers cellular stress factors and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The stress granules produced in response to cellular stress have been implicated in viral replication and ROS generation, which stimulates neuronal death. Both these phenomena cohesively explain the neuropathogenesis and neurodegeneration following CHPV infection.

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