End-use energy efficiency: a path for decarbonisation

India, through the Paris Climate Agreement in 2015, made a commitment to reduce its emissions intensity of GDP (kg CO2/INR) by 33–35% in 2030, over the 2005 levels (GoI, 2015). Although this commitment does not mandate any sector specific mitigation obligation, at least two missions (National Solar Mission and the National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency) under India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) are expected to contribute significantly to this goal (GoI, 2010). However, these contributions are often provided indirectly in terms of sector-specific technology capacity to be deployed for emissions mitigation. For example; the goal to install 100 GW grid-connected solar power by 2022 and achieve 19.6 GW avoided capacity through Energy Efficiency (EE) measures (GoI, 2015). In this context, Center for Study of Science Technology and Policy (CSTEP) conducted analysis by disaggregating the emissions intensity of GDP (kgCO2e/INR) by its two constituents vis-à-vis, emissions intensity of energy (kgCO2e/kWh primary energy) (representing the level of fossil fuel use) and energy intensity of GDP (kWh/INR) (representing the EE in the economy). This is to understand the contribution of EE to India’s emissions intensity of GDP reduction target.