How technology, recycling, and policy can mitigate supply risks to the long-term transition to zero-emission vehicles

This white paper analyzes fundamental ZEV supply questions regarding zero-emission vehicles. It assesses how planned electric vehicle manufacturing compares to government near-term regulations and long-term targets, and how future battery production capacity compares to global demand. The analysis quantifies the number of materials such as lithium, nickel, cobalt, and graphite that are needed in the electric vehicle transition and compares them against raw materials reserves. The work also assesses the potential for large scale battery recycling to reduce the need for additional mining and discusses the opportunity for government policies to maximize ZEV supply.