Integrating refrigerants with low global warming potential into India’s light vehicle fuel efficiency standards

India’s light vehicle fuel consumption standards currently ignore both direct and indirect emissions from mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems. The MAC does not operate during the official tests that determine compliance and neither climate-friendly refrigerants nor MAC efficiency improvements are included in the off-cycle credits system offered under the standards. The regulations can be amended, though, and to help understand the benefits, this paper evaluates the emissions reductions and costs of four different improved MAC systems versus the R134a systems currently prevalent in India: an enhanced R134a system with reduced leakage and improved efficiency, and systems that use R152a, R744, and R1234yf.